The Industrial Revolution brought about significant changes in society, the environment, and lifestyle, including a modern diet high in processed foods refined grains, and low in fruits, vegetables, and fibers. This dietary imbalance can alter the composition of the gut microbiota and immune epigenetics, leading to low-grade endotoxemia and chronic inflammation, which can cause DNA damage, dysfunctional telomeres, epigenomic disruption, mitogenic signals, and oxidative stress. This can ultimately lead to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and can cause disability and mortality. Many studies, including multi-dimensional and omics, have investigated the links between chronic inflammation and disease risk. The health benefits of polyphenols and bioactive peptides from food sources have been recognized for centuries, and these compounds have been proven to have multiple health benefits and counteract chronic inflammation.
Bioactive compounds that have the ability to manage chronic inflammation are categorized according to their chemical structure and function. These categories are diverse, and some have been studied more extensively than others. For example, phenolic compounds and bioactive peptides, including different subcategories, have been extensively studied in various food sources. However, slight variations in the chemical structure of polyphenols, such as the number and location of methoxy, or hydroxyl groups, or the type of conjugated sugar unit, can influence their biological function and change their bioavailability. Some studies have reported that certain structures can result in low bioavailability. While the bioavailability of bioactive peptides is mainly affected by the composition and sequence of amino acids the length of the peptide also has an impact. However, there is limited information on how these compounds improve human health and alleviate chronic inflammation, such as the interplay between bio-compounds with cytokines like TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and the reduction of ROS. To summarize, the mechanisms by which polyphenols and bioactive peptides improve human health and the effect of gastrointestinal tract bioavailability on bio-compounds are not fully understood.
With this in mind, the goal of this Research Topic is to gather original research and review articles that explore the structure-dependent bioavailability, physiochemical and physiological mechanisms, metabolic processes, and cellular interactions that regulate the relationship between chronic inflammation and phenolic compounds and bioactive peptides from food, with a particular focus on elucidating the processes that reduce chronic inflammation by improving health through the amelioration of DNA damage, dysfunctional telomeres, epigenomic disruption, mitogenic signals, and oxidative stress. Subtopics include, but are not limited to:
• Enhancements in the physiochemical stability and bioactivity of polyphenols and bioactive peptides;
• Delivery systems for polyphenols and bioactive peptides, including encapsulation processes and mechanisms;
• Biomarkers of chronic inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines;
• Interventions and mechanisms for alleviating chronic inflammation diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative disorders.