Mast cells and basophils share many characteristics, such as morphology, surface expression of FcεRI, and granule storage of histamine. Mast cells are distributed to nearly all vascularized tissues and function as an immune sentinel to trigger inflammation. They could be activated in response to various kinds of environmental changes and triggers releasing a wide variety of mediators.
Basophils are traveling in the circulation and infiltrate into the tissues upon inflammation. They modulate chronic inflammation in collaboration with other infiltrated leukocytes including group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Recent studies using gene-targeted mice specifically lacking mast cells or basophils have shed light on their pathophysiological roles. Accumulating evidence suggests that mast cells and basophils should be potential therapeutic targets of various inflammatory diseases.
Mast cells and basophils have long been regarded as critical contributors in IgE-mediated immediate allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic asthma. Recent studies using mast cell or basophil-deficient mouse strains have broadened our view that they are possibly involved in a much broader range of immune/inflammatory responses. Novel surface receptors have been identified that might regulate the activation and inhibition of mast cells and basophils. Heterogeneity of local resident mast cells and infiltrated basophils has prevented us to identify the precise roles of these cells in immunological responses, but recent progress in imaging studies and omics has put precise research at single-cell levels into practice. We believe that an increased number of researchers should join in this fascinating research field.
This Research Topic aims to provide not only mast cell/basophil professionals but also newcomers with an overview of mast cell/basophil biology, the methodologies used in this field, and exciting novel findings that uncover the pathophysiological roles of mast cells and basophils.
In this Research Topic we welcome the submission of Original Research and Review articles addressing in vitro and in vivo studies focused on these potential topics, but not limited to:
• Overview of inflammatory roles of mast cells/basophils
• Development of technical tools for mast cell/basophil research
• Differentiation and maturation of mast cells/basophils
• Roles of inflammatory mediators released from mast cells/basophils in diseases such as chronic urticaria, atopic dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, cancer, etc.
• Regulation of mast cell/basophil functions through surface receptors including Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors
• Co-operation between mast cells/basophils and the neighboring cells